By Olivier Massol, Stéphane Tchung-Ming and Albert Banal-Estanol
This paper examines the conditions for the deployment of large scale pipeline and storage infrastructure needed for the capture of CO2 in Spain by 2040. It details a modeling framework that allows us to determine the optimal infrastructure needed to connect a geographically disaggregated set of emitting and storage clusters, along with the threshold CO2 values necessary to ensure that the considered emitters will make the necessary investment decisions. This framework is used to assess the relevance of various policy scenarios, including (i) the perimeter of the targeted emitters for a CCS uptake, and (ii) the relevance of constructing several regional networks instead of a single grid to account for the spatial characteristics of the Spanish peninsula. We find that three networks naturally emerge in the north, center and south of Spain. Moreover, the necessary CO2 break-even price critically depends on the presence of power stations in the capture perimeter. Policy implications of these findings concern the elaboration of relevant, pragmatic recommendations to envisage CCS deployment locally, focusing on emitters with lower substitution options toward low-carbon alternatives.