Article publication « Energy, Climate and Environment: Policies and International Coordination » by Anna Creti and Duc Khuong Nguyen in Energy Policy review.
January 2020, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2019.111226
The Paris Agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), adopted during the COP21 in 2016, has set essential bases for coordinated action plan to limit global warming between 1.5°C and 2°C, compared to the pre-industrial levels. To date, 187 out of 195 UNFCCC Parties have ratified the Agreement. Three years later, the COP25, recently held in Madrid, continues to urge all Parties to speed up negotiations for the implementation of the Paris Agreement as it struggled in getting all Parties agree with the rules on international carbon markets to help countries decarbonize their economies (Article 6). The recognized voluntary cooperation of some Parties is one of the causes. Another important issue is that some of the largest countries have no intention to change their national climate goals.